DUI Breathalyzer Accuracy

Anyone that has been stopped and arrested for a DUI charge is likely to find the entire process to be very difficult and stressful. Plus, with the reported increase in accidents involving drivers under the influence of alcohol or illegal substance, the authorities are making every effort to prosecute all offenders. In order to prove a person is driving under the influence, the law enforcement official that made the stop has a choice of asking the driver to take a roadside sobriety test or use a breathalyzer. A first course of action may be the sobriety test which involves simple tests like walking in a straight line, lifting one foot off the ground, touch the tip of your nose, etc.

But, these tests aren’t entirely reliable and the most common option used is the breathalyzer. A field breathalyzer is quick to use and basically involves breathing air into a device that is analyzed to determine whether of not the driver has consumed too much alcohol to be on the road.

While the breath analysis is the favored method to test the concentration of blood alcohol in a roadside stop, they are nowhere near as reliable or accurate as blood tests. But, for the case of DUI investigations, it is seen as an acceptable option, provided it is administered in the correct fashion.

The breathalyzer tests aren’t complicated and a useful piece of portable kit to analyze a sample, but the result generated by this device may not be as reliable as the authorities would like you to believe. In fact, it has been reported that neither the spectroscopic BAC (Blood Alcohol Content) test nor the breathalyzer test is 100% trustworthy. This mostly relates to alcohol not affecting everyone the same, with many people able to consume quite a lot and still not be drunk.

Even though the test can give a positive indication that the BAC reading is high, this doesn’t actually confirm the driver was under the influence of alcohol while in control of their vehicle.

Scientific studies have taken place in relation to the accuracy of the breath alcohol tests, and their conclusion was that they are inherently unreliable. These studies have indicated that the breath readings can be up to 15% outside of the true blood alcohol levels.

So, in the event of being stopped for a DUI charge, you don’t really want the result from a breathalyzer to be the defining factor that determines the sentence issued. The best course of action is to get in touch with a skilled and reputable DUI attorney who is able to use their knowledge of the law to help fight this offense.

A DUI charge is a serious offense that has the potential to lead to a variety of legal consequences, which can include a period of prison time, attending alcohol or drug awareness classes, taking part in community service, having to pay a high fine, or the loss of your driver’s license. There are situations where the sentence given is more severe, such as having a minor on-board at the time or not being a first offense.

In the approach to defend the DUI charge that involves a breath analysis, any qualified criminal defense lawyer will be aware that there could be several operational and theoretical issues. There are a variety of factors that can lead to the results of blood-alcohol analysis being regarded as unreliable, and attempt to show that this type of data isn’t enough to prosecute. By using a lawyer it is possible to get the get outcome with a case either closed or a sentence kept to a minimum.

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Quick Payback With Cheap EDDM Marketing

Every business needs a marketing plan to be successful. An effective way to get a fast return on promotional marketing campaigns is Every Door Direct Mail, (EDDM), a U.S. postal service for local business that can benefit from targeted zip codes to every house or house and businesses right down to the individual carrier route. Compared to traditional direct mail has very low distribution costs. The cost is $0.183 for each piece. This is cost-effective marketing solution that generates fast sales to new and old customers. Another benefit to EDDM is that it is delivered the day after it arrives at the post office. Direct mail can take weeks to be delivered and you may not know when it is delivered.

There are 6 standard sizes for EDDM: 4.5 X 12, 6 X 12, 6.5 X 12 6.5 X 9, 8 X 6.5 and 8.5 X 7. All sizes cost the same to mail. In addition to cheap mailing fees, there is no need to buy expensive mailing lists and address imprinting. Just select the zip codes in your target areas right down to the individual carrier route. To make this even easier, let your printing service handle the paperwork and delivery to post offices of your choice.

With this EDDM marketing, you can mail directly to local residential customers in the address area of the card. The maximum quantity allowed in this retail program is 5,000 to 25,000 a day at any one post office. Mailers must be bundled in 50 or 100 so they can be quickly distributed to the right carrier.

Put in your target zip codes and choose using breakdowns showing residential, business, total, age 25-44, size, income and cost. This free easy-to-use demographic guide map lets you select the best neighborhoods to give you a fast return on your investment.

You can deliver to other post offices as long as you send a minimum of 5,000 to each. This is so the post offices are not overloaded with EDDM mail. Another advantage is that many printing services offer full service mailing. They do the paperwork, bundling and delivery to your post offices of your choice. Having your printing service do the mailing for you allows you to not pay sales tax as you are not taking possession of this printing.

This quick return marketing plan is best with local businesses such as take out and restaurants, realtors, dry cleaners, retail stores, auto dealerships, contractors and home services, medical professionals, health and beauty services – to name just a few business that can benefit from this promotion.

One very important tip is that this is not a one-time test to see if you can recover your cost in your first mailing. If you offer a valuable discount sale you should get your investment back in a short time. The best way to get high returns is by making your EDDM campaign a monthly mailing to keep you brand in front of people’s eyes so they remember your business.

Using this EDDM program is a great way to get a fast return on your promotional marketing campaigns. It can save you in mailing costs as well as saturate any area you want to concentrate sales. Whether you use full service EDDM printing or do it yourself, this is a successful way to target your audience without spending a lot of money.

Immortality and Education

The thinking process is a little convoluted, but I think, some scientists statements about music to the contrary, technically it begins with artists.

Artists present thoughts that are expressed in the most free medium relative to its communicability to most people. There are many people who don’t understand music-it can depend radically on one’s sense of taste, or how loud the music is played, or whether one hates violins, and this and that thing. But artwork is easily communicated as either something representational or abstract, which carries certain subliminal messages about symbolism and emotion very easily to a large population. Having a perspective on art does not require as much intellectual training as appreciating music-music requires appreciation, whereas artwork merely requires perspective. Therefore, artwork does not require the level of emotional sophistication or commitment that music requires. Understanding some music actually requires playing an instrument, which is not at all as common as is usually assumed. Real talent in art is far more common than real talent in composing or playing instruments.

The general process I have observed for thought is:

Art → Literature → Philosophy → Science

(this also may continue to Polymathy → Magic → Immortality).

Although literature is an important step, I think the next truly significant step is philosophy, where the symbolism of art and literature is formed into knowledge.

So, in my view, the creative process does not begin with philosophers. There is a lot of basic investigation of visual forms-rudimentary investigation of intelligence-and a lot of reading-experience of abstract concepts, which is necessary before doing meaningful things with logic.

And it is true that for some mathematics and representations of mathematics (such as musical harmonies, golden ratios, Fibonacci sequences, and classical beauty) come first, because for certain people the nature of logic is mathematics, but that is not true for everyone.

So it seems in the philosophical path art and literature come first, but in the mathematical path music and certain mathematical logic come first.

However, it can be argued that if we assume philosophy is the source of all fundamental logic (logic being a discipline of philosophy originally), then where mathematics depends on the fundamental it also depends on philosophy, which it has been argued, in turn depends on literature, which depends on art.

So, as far as the fundamental, it seems that art rather than philosophy comes first, and literature may also come earlier than philosophy.

This is easily shown from the depiction of human development, and even aspects of modern education, where children do finger-painting before they do drawing, and drawing before they do writing, and writing before they do critical thinking, and critical thinking before they do mathematics. It is also clear that those who are extremely smart will want knowledge of many languages, which is an aspect of polymathy, and those who want to do very well with languages will want something like magic, and those who truly succeed with magic will become immortals (whether or not this is possible is not entirely clear to me, but it is one of the ultimate goals I have found).

C.A.R.E. To Improve Your Real Estate Business

Do you need more business? Want more money? Want more market share? It’s simple: give more. If you remember anything from this article, let it be those two words – give more. Why? Because it works.

I read recently about research by Arthur Brooks, president of the American Enterprise Institute, who studied 30,000 American families. Brooks discovered a family giving $100 more to charity earns about $375 more income than a non-giving family that is similar in every other factor. For every dollar they give, they earn nearly $4 more. Who would have thought it? In giving, we receive.

But Realtors shouldn’t be giving just because they get something in return. You should give because you earn your living from your community.

But Bob, what should I do? There are so many causes out there.

Let me share some examples. A few months ago NAR highlighted several Realtors making heart-felt differences in their communities:

Bernice and Troy Helman, of Coldwell Banker REALTORS® in Terre Haute, Ind., joined two dozen other business leaders who pledged to live on $4.57 a day for one week (thousands of Hoosiers live on that amount of money every day). It generated tons of local media coverage on the prevalence of hunger. She also launched the “Grillin’ and Chillin'” picnic for local real estate pros that raises $10,000 to $15,000 annually for the poor. And as the 2011 fundraising chair for the local United Way, the Helmans led the charity to a record year of donations — more than $1.8 million.

When Tina McDonough of RE/MAX Select in Renton, Wash., lost her friend, Michelle Brown, to breast cancer in 2008, it touched her deeply. “I watched her 12-year-old daughter and her husband fall apart,” McDonough says. “I had to do something, so I started a team to walk in her memory.” Today, it’s the top fundraising team for the Susan G. Komen organization in the country — it has raised $1.4 million. McDonough also includes the Komen logo on all of her real estate signs.

Joel Pratt of J.L. Pratt, REALTORS in Canton, Mass., raises money and awareness for MatchingDonors, a nonprofit that has saved more than 500 lives by matching kidney donors with recipients. Pratt says every life saved keeps the memory of Lynda, his beloved wife of nearly 25 years, alive. She died in 1998 after a three-year battle with breast cancer.

Kristina Rhodes with F.C. Tucker Emge, REALTORS in Newburgh, Ind., has helped make more than 80 children’s dreams come true with her support for the Make-A-Wish Foundation. When Rhodes learned of Emily Jones, an 11-year-old fighting an aggressive form of cancer, and her dream of taking a Caribbean cruise, she acted. Sadly, Emily’s health never reached a level to allow for the trip. So Rhodes brought the cruise to Emily by arranging a pontoon ride on the Ohio River. “Emily taught me about what’s really important in life and helped me keep things in perspective,” Rhodes said.

So what’s the next step for you? Follow the acronym C.A.R.E. to get started today as a real estate agent who, well, cares:

C – Commit yourself to a cause. If I’ve said it once, I’ve said it a million times: The day you truly commit, your whole world changes.

A – Act on your commitment. The only way anything gets done is through action.

R – Reward yourself. Humans do things because there’s something in it for them. After you act, do something nice for yourself.

E – Enjoy the rewards. I promise, once you start giving back to a cause you care deeply about, you will enjoy your life (and your increased business) more.

Let me hear from you. Are you involved philanthropically in your community? If not, why not? Do you believe if you were to give back to your community your business would grow?

Food Acids We Consume Regularly

Food acids are the vital acids found in natural and synthetic food products that give them a distinct flavor or a tinge. Many fruits, vegetables and dairy products contain some type of acid. Human body tends to react differently to different types of food acids. Some of these acids provide nutrients or help alleviate some maladies whilst some have adverse effects on health when they are not consumed in appropriate amounts.

Citric Acid: This is a natural preservative found primarily in citrus fruits. Limes and Lemons are the best sources of citric acid, followed by other citrus fruits and strawberries, tomatoes and pineapples. A great quantity of all the citric acid produced is contained in soft drinks and other beverages, where it boosts flavors and adds a slightly sour taste. Citric acid also acts as a preservative and flavor enhancer in foods, including frozen foods, meat products, canned vegetables, jams, gelatins, candies.

Malic Acid: This is a component of many of the foods that we eat daily; mainly contained in candies, diet sodas and other artificially sweetened drinks due to its ability in masking artificial flavors and alternative sweeteners. The food that is most famous for its high malic acid content is the apple. Other fruits with a very high concentration of the acid are lychees, peaches nectarines, cherries, tomatoes, bananas, mangoes, and strawberries.

Tartric Acid: This compound is naturally found in many plants, particularly in grapes, tamarinds, pineapples, potatoes, carrots and bananas. It is also one of the especial acids found in wine. Tartaric acid can be added to food when a sour taste is desired. Tartaric acids have a dual role of an antioxidant and an anti-inflammatory which can help boost the immune system and promote overall wellness.

Acetic Acid: Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is a sour-tasting compound best known for the sour taste and pungent smell in vinegar, pickles, and sourdough bread. Its produced by fermenting and oxidizing ethanol and the distillation of wood. Acetic acid has many functions, but it is mostly used as a chemical reagent, fungicide, herbicide, and solvent in a variety of industries such as food, agriculture, cosmetics and cleaning.

Oxalic Acid: Oxalates or Oxalic acids is a compound occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is also produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid and does not go through metabolism but excreted in the urine. The body is known to absorb oxalic acid from only a handful of foods, including peanuts, pecans, cocoa, guava, rhubarb wheat bran, spinach, beets and beet greens and chocolate.

Benzoic acid: A natural source of benzoic acid is gum benzoin, which comes from certain tree barks, but, it can also be made by synthetic means. Benzoic acid is very useful as Preservatives to make food products last longer, and also eradicate harmful yeast and bacteria. Benzoic acid is present in various products, including Cranberries, prunes and plums sauces, jams, jellies and candied fruits.

Butyric acid: Butyric acid also known as butanoic acid, is a saturated short-chain fatty acid with a 4-carbon backbone occurring in the form of esters in animal fats and plant oils. Butyrate is produced as end-product of a fermentation process such as, decomposition of butter solely performed by obligate anaerobic bacteria. It is found in milk, especially sheep and buffalo milk, goat, cheese and butter.

Lactic acid: This is an organic compound which is white and water-soluble in its solid state and colourless in its liquid state. It is produced both naturally and artificially but naturally present in many foodstuffs via natural fermentation in products such as cheese, yogurt, soy sauce, sourdough, meat products and pickled vegetables. Lactic acid in food products usually serves as either as a pH regulator or as a preservative. It is also used as a flavoring agent.

Tannic Acid: Tannic acid, or tannin, is a bitter-tasting compound that is derived from plants. It is the component of red wine or unripe fruit that makes your mouth want to ruck. Grapes contain a high concentration of tannins which is critical to the art of wine making. Other products that contain this acid are Green Tea, nettle, oakwood, berries, Chinese galls, persimmons.

Caffeo-tannic Acid: This is a Chlorogenic acid, from coffee, yielding caffeic acid by precipitation with baryta and salts of lead. It is known for relatively lower toxicity and used widely in many other fields like food, feed additives and cosmetics.

Dog Flu Symptoms And Treatment

This a short information about dog flu symptoms and treatment.

Canine Influenza, otherwise called canine flu, was initially seen in the USA in 2004 in racing greyhounds in Florida. The CIV H3N8 strain has now spread to over 38 countries and generally happens in the canine population. Genetic analysis indicates that the virus is closely associated with equine flu, also as greyhounds and race horses frequently are around the very same racetracks, speculation is that canine flu evolved in the equine virus and jumped from horses to dogs.

In 2015, an epidemic of a new breed of dog flu appeared. This breed known as CIV H3N2 is of avian origin rather than linked to this earlier CIV H3N8 virus.

Dogs of any age may be affected, and since the viruses are comparatively new, there’s little to no natural immunity from the canine population. Virtually all dogs who are exposed to the virus become infected and almost 80% show clinical signs of disease. The virus is extremely contagious, but mercifully has a very low mortality rate. There’s no “season” for this, and it spreads year round. Dogs greatest in danger are those bundled together, the very young, the very old and also the immune-compromised. The disease doesn’t affect humans.

The virus spreads through respiratory secretions (e.g. Mucous and saliva) and infected objects and surfaces (e.g. Noodle surfaces, water, food bowls, collars and leashes). Folks also distribute it going between infected and uninfected dogs with no appropriate hygiene or precautions.

Indicators of canine flu follow along one of two paths, severe or mild, with the gentle kind being the most frequent. Symptoms are usually found within 2-3 days of disease. The gentle form contains: Soft, moist cough which lasted for 10-30 times, Dry cough, such as kennel cough, Loss of desire, Lethargy, Sneezing, Discharge from eyes, Runny nose, and Thick discharge from nose.

Treatment will be based on the symptoms that your dog is introduced. Antibiotics may be prescribed to combat any bacterial infections existing. Anti-inflammatories might be awarded for fever, swelling and pain. Fluid treatment is given to all those dogs that are very dehydrated. Other medicines may be prescribed based on the additional symptoms present. Hospitalization may be required in more severe cases. Fatalities have just been reported with the beginning of pneumonia, however, the speed is less than 10 percent of dogs that are affected.

Boosting the Dog Immune System

Boosting your pet’s immune system helps accelerate the recovery from dog flu, in addition to preventing further afield. It is the work of the immune system to secure your pet’s own body from cells infected by bacteria, a virus, fungus, or parasites. The immune system also filters out toxins and retains cells powerful enough to fight dog illness like the dog influenza. When the immune system is weak, micro-organisms comprising infections and toxins can pass via the immune cells that are immune.

The most effective methods to enhance the immune system include fundamental nutrition and nutritional supplements. A puppy who eats entire foods free of substances and additives and allergens like wheat, soy, and corn may have higher health than a puppy that has a bad diet. Your pet’s diet ought to be rich in organic ingredients which mimic what he’d consume in the wild and also the food needs to have a high moisture content.

1 approach to help your pet remain free of the flu would be to vaccinate him against it. Vaccines have now released vaccines against the two canine flu viruses. Flu vaccines aren’t a guarantee that your pet will not catch the illness, but when a vaccinated pet doesn’t go down with influenza, it’s typically not as severe as it is in puppies which are unvaccinated.

Could puppies catch flu from people?

Diseases that leap from animals to humans are known as zoonoses. However, there’s also the possibility of diseases like influenza, to maneuver out of people to animals. These are known as reverse zoonoses.

Reverse zoonoses is not very well known, and it is not very common.

We are aware that ferrets, and sometimes cats, can catch flu from individuals, but there’s less evidence of puppies doing this.

Can people catch flu from puppies?

In accordance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there is no evidence of transmission of canine flu from dogs to humans. There really have been no documented instances of an individual catching flu in their puppy.

What to Look for When Buying Pearls – Top Tips

Here are some top tips for things to look for when you’re buying pearls.

Please note, there is no discussion here relating to increasing in value over time – i.e. an investment. Generally speaking, it is unwise to consider the purchase of any type of jewellery from an investment viewpoint because values can rise or fall over time.

Check to see if the pearl has been artificially colored

This isn’t, in itself, necessarily a problem. Typically though, purists will look for naturally colored pearls and they might well command higher prices.

Things that might indicate the pearl has been artificially colored include:

  • color seemingly “wearing off” the outer shell;
  • a very dark core (indication of possible irradiation to change colours);
  • a very visible stratification of colour change on the inside of the pearl.

The final two above assume your pearl has a drill hole that you can look into with magnification.

Examine the regularity and symmetry of shape
Tiny irregularities of shape can be seen or felt – and that’s typically a good sign.If your pearl is perfectly round and perfectly smooth over its surface, then you’re probably looking at an artificial not natural (whether wild or cultured) pearl made from synthetic materials.

However, even if you have a real pearl, remember that significant deformations and irregularities may (or should) reduce the value if they’re particularly evident or severe.

Look at the lustre

Peals may vary in both body colour (their background colour) and their overtones (a surface shimmer of colour). Some may not have an overtone and that is not a problem. A lot will depend upon your own colour preferences.

However, this is very difficult to describe but look for pearls that gently shine. If they’re a dull matt finish it might indicate that there has been some damage (e.g. poor cleaning techniques with acid) that has taken the lustre off.

That can hugely reduce both value and appearance.

Read the advertisement’s wording carefully

Terms used in some pearl advertisements which may mislead (intentionally or otherwise):

Pearls from Japan“. That phrase would be true for pearls farmed in say China, shipped to Japan and then sold-on from there. Look for “farmed in Japan” to be sure – if that’s what you’re looking for;

Certified“. By whom? To what recognized standards? Remember, a label attached to your pearls means nothing if it’s just the seller’s.

Real pearls“. That should exclude synthetics but it’s ambiguous in terms of whether your pearls are natural (i.e. found in the wild – which is VERY rare today and they’re very expensive too) or cultured.

AAAA Grade“. Gradings are not standard across the globe or universally recognized. Trust some of the other tips on this page and your own common sense.

Price

Typically, if all other things are roughly equal, from most to least expensive pearls run:

  • natural/wild (sea);
  • cultured (sea);
  • freshwater;
  • synthetics.

If you see cultured pearls advertised at a price close to a set of essentially plastic ones, then something’s gone wrong and you should be sceptical.

Summary
  • If you have any doubts, you should contact an expert retailer for advice and guidance.
  • It might save you money and disappointment downstream.

The Importance of Doctor’s Visits For Children

Every child is unique and has different health care needs throughout childhood. Some children are born with weak immune systems, some with an adventurous spirit that often results in injury, and others with a preexisting medical condition. To be sure that each has his or her special needs attended to, all children should have regularly scheduled visits with a doctor.

How Minor Can Become Major

If not properly treated, small scrapes and cuts can become infected. Minor coughs and colds can develop into pneumonia or other sicknesses. A lightly fractured wrist can become a broken bone or a permanent injury. Whatever small medical problems your child is facing, they may develop into larger problems if they go untreated or are improperly treated. A doctor can immediately determine the cause of the problem and advise you on how it should be treated so that your child can fully recover. With regular doctor’s visits, recurring problems, such as allergies or asthma, can be diagnosed early to prevent potentially life-threatening health problems later on.

Paying for Your Child’s Health Care

Almost all parents understand that doctor’s visits are an important part of ensuring a happy, healthy childhood. However, office visits and medical treatment can be expensive. A health insurance plan can help you pay for your family’s health needs so that you don’t have to carry the burden yourself. In the case of a severe injury or illness, a child’s medical bills can build up very quickly to the point that you cannot afford to pay. Health insurance can protect your family from facing high medical costs.

Explore Your Options

Find the most affordable insurance for your children’s needs.

What Every Traveler Should Know About Making Hotel Reservations

There was a time when making hotel reservations was as simple as picking up the telephone & booking a room for a specific period of time. Depending on how your travels worked out, you would sometimes have the misfortune of having to book the same day & were hoping for the best, but all in all, booking a hotel room was not a big deal.

Boy, things have certainly changed! When the occasional hotel room “Booker” decides it’s time to make a reservation, the nervous perspiration starts. Palms get clammy, internal temperature starts to rise, and voices start cracking. The issue at hand is that we’re constantly bombarded by commercials on our airwaves telling us that we can find better deals by using technology. Online booking, booking apps, and email & text message alerts for price drops are now the way to book a hotel room not necessarily the right way but the smart way. Of course, no one wants to seem foolish, right?

To begin, let’s keep it simple. First of all, you always want to be sure you have the dates correct for your prospective reservation at the correct hotel. In other words, have the basic information spelled out correctly before you even start. It seems like common sense, but you’d be surprised how often people will try booking a hotel room with faulty information.

You also want to be sure to try & book early. Even though this may not always be possible, it does help get things off your mind faster than waiting until the last-minute before booking. You also avoid issues of not having a room to reserve because of something on the calendar that is bringing people into town. An example would be trying to book a hotel near the beach during Spring Break season.

It pays to think about how you book so that you can avoid having to contend with overbooking, time crunches, and heavy travel windows. For example, if you are traveling on the weekend, try to book a room at a hotel that tends to have a leaning toward business bookings. In the same vein, if you’re traveling during the week, like to stay in a hotel that has more of a ‘resort’ feel to it. This way, you’re always trying to travel opposite of the general travel traffic.

Finally, here is some input regarding the online & discount booking apps & websites – it can go either way. You can actually save some serious money booking online in some way, but you may open yourself to being booked at a mystery hotel whose identity isn’t known until after the reservation is made. In some cases, you also have to act quickly to take advantage of hotel reservation deals in order to get the pricing, which you may not be in a position to do right away. It’s also important to know about being “walked” by a hotel. Getting “walked” means that if a hotel can’t fill your reservation, it will pay for a night elsewhere. Hotels overbook assuming that there will be “no shows”. Depending on how & when you book, your indirect/third-party booking leaves you as a low priority, and if you’re unlucky enough to have booked at a hotel where everyone showed up, you will be “walked”.

Surprisingly enough, booking hotel reservations directly with a hotel over the phone or through their own website is the best way to book in many cases & provides the most perks. Whether through loyalty programs, flexibility in price negotiation, or being a frequent guest, connecting the old-fashioned way seems to be the best bet for handling your travel lodging.

What Pet Vaccinations Are Needed?

Just as people need to have frequent vaccinations, it is important that you do the same for your furry, four legged friends. However, unlike with human vaccinations, where the types of shots needed are fairly standard, for pets the types or frequency can vary from species to species as dogs, cats, horses, etc. each have different needs. Yet. it is to be noted that there are mutated versions of some disease that while they may be primarily a dog issue, may affect a feline – and vice versa.

Common Vaccinations for Dogs

As mentioned, the vaccine action needed depends on the pet species. For canines, the primary shots you need to be concerned about include: canine parvovirus, distemper, canine hepatitis and rabies are considered core vaccines. Non-core vaccines are given depending on the dog’s exposure risk. These include vaccines against Bordetella bronchiseptica, Borrelia burgdorferi and Leptospira bacteria.

Common Vaccinations for Cats

Your feline friends has other needs. Talk to your vet about scheduling these pet vaccinations: panleukopenia (feline distemper), feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus type I (rhinotracheitis) and rabies are considered core vaccines. Non-core vaccines are given depending on the cat’s lifestyle; these include vaccines for feline leukemia virus, Bordetella, Chlamydophila felis and feline immunodeficiency virus.

It should be noted that while these are all the commonly suggested pet vaccinations, that not every pet will be on the same schedule. For instance, if a puppy’s mother was healthy and then nursed the puppies, then some of the shots can be delayed. For cats who are nursed by a healthy mother whose immune system is strong, it is typically not necessary to begin vaccinations until your kitten is as much as 8 weeks old. Once your kitten or puppy reaches adulthood, it generally not necessary to vaccinate your pet but once every 3 years.

However, do be sure to talk to you veterinarian as there are some diseases that may be more common in your region, and thus require you to have your pet inoculated for some diseases more frequently then mentioned here. Also, as with human immunizations, there are often side effects that will need to watch for. Be sure to ask your vet of any specific indicators that your pet has had a reaction.

Having your pet vaccinated is a way you can be proactive in keeping your pet healthy and protecting them fro any potential sickness they may be exposed to. If you are unsure about what type of shots are needed for your pet, then be sure to talk to your veterinarian. They will be happy to help determine what approach to take.